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为逃避酒驾查处冲卡逃匿 行为应定性为妨害公务罪

信息来源:中国普法网 余爱华 余利明     发布日期: 2018-12-19 15:26:00     点击数:      【字号:    

【案情】

凌晨1时13?#20013;恚?#34987;告人章某某酒后驾驶小轿车途经浙江省淳安县明珠路与新安东路交叉路?#38382;保?#36935;交警设卡查缉酒驾。为逃避检查,被告人章某某即迅速掉头加速行驶逃离现场,其间冲撞执勤民警,造成民警右手大拇指甲床出血,构成轻微伤,将协警顶在汽车引擎盖上开出40余米,后被甩到地面滑行了十余米,致协警左膝部前侧皮肤擦伤。被告人章某某在逃离现场时,绕开停车其后等待检查的一辆车,沿淳安县千岛湖镇新安大街超速、逆向行驶,1时14?#20013;?#33267;新安大街农业银行准备左转弯进入贸易弄时撞?#19979;?#21475;农业银行门口的台阶上,致使车辆受损,车中安全气?#19994;?#20986;。后,其于当天14时30分向淳安县公安局千岛湖派出所自首。

【分歧】

被告人为逃避酒驾查处,采取驾车冲卡、超速、逆向行驶的行为如何定性,有?#34903;?#20105;议观点:

第一种观点认为:应根据重罪吸收轻罪的理论,以危险方法危害公共安全罪对章某某进行定罪处罚更为合?#30465;?/p>

第二种观点认为:汽车是危险性较大的交通工具,所有违反道路交通法规的驾驶行为都会对公共安全造成威胁,但并不是每辆超速、逆向行驶?#26576;?#36742;都会构成以危险方法危害公共安全罪,本案被告人章某某主观上是为逃避酒驾查处,案发当时系凌晨,车辆稀少,没?#34892;?#20154;,也未造成人员伤亡或其他公共设施损坏等?#29616;?#21518;果,其行为?#27573;创锏接?#25918;火、决水等行为相当?#26576;潭取?#20294;其采取驾车冲卡的暴力方法阻碍公安人员依法执行公务,对其以妨害公务罪定罪处罚才能罪刑相适应。

?#37202;?#26512;】

?#25910;?#21516;意后一种意见。具体理由如下:

1.被告人主观上不具有危害公共安全的故意

刑法所规定的以危险方法危害公共安全罪,是指故意以危险方法危害公共安全的行为,意即行为人故意实施足以危害公共安全的行为。故意是认识因素与意志因素的统一,相互间不能替代,故而行为人虽认识到自己行为的危害性并不必?#22351;?#20986;其希望或放任危害结果发生的结论。就本案而言,被告人在停车掉头的?#24067;洌?#25191;法人员围住车辆时,被告人未驾车向前冲,而是倒车与人员拉开间距后再掉头逃离,还特意绕开停在其后等待通行的轿车,在此期间其车速适当。从被告人的整个行为表现结合案发场景分析判?#24076;?#21487;确认被告人主观上单纯系为逃避酒驾查处,不具有危害公共安全的直接故意亦不存在放任自己的行为发生危害公共安全的间接故意。

2.客观上?#21019;锏轿?#23475;公共安全的危险程度

刑法第一百一十四、一百一十五条所规定的以危险方法危害公共安全罪,是指故意使用放火、决水、爆炸、投放危险物质以外的危险方法危害公共安全,这里的其他危险方法自然是具有与放火、决水、爆炸、投放危险物质相当危险程度的行为,不能泛指任何具有危害公共安全性质的行为。如,醉酒驾驶行为同样具有危险性,但当行为人达到醉酒标准时是以危险驾驶罪追究刑责而非以危险方法危害公共安全罪追责。再如,?#29616;?#36229;载超速行为本身?#28147;?#26377;危害公共安全的性质,在导致人员死亡时即以交通肇事罪追究责任。故,对于那些与放火、爆炸等危险方法不相当的行为,?#35789;?#21361;害公共安全,也不宜认定为以危险方法危害公共安全罪。

具体到本案中,不可否认超速、逆向在主干道上行驶具有较大危险性,但是否具有危害不特定或多数人的人身财产安全的危险,需从行为当时?#30446;?#35266;环?#22330;?#34892;为人的主观目的综合分析判?#31232;?#26412;案案发系在12月的某日凌晨,涉案主干道上?#26576;?#36742;、行人较少,并随着时间的推移在逐渐减少,被告人主观上系为逃避酒驾查处,在逃跑过程中其绕开停在其后方?#26576;?#36742;,不存在放任自己的驾车逃匿行为危害公共安全的间接故意,至其驾车撞到农业银行门口台阶的整个行?#36824;?#31243;中,历时30秒左右,也没有同时同向、同时相向行驶?#26576;?#36742;,客观上没?#24615;?#25104;人员伤亡或是其他公共安全设施损坏等重大事故,其行为的危险性?#27573;创锏接?#25918;火、决水、爆炸、投放危险物质相当?#26576;潭取?/p>

3.被告人的行为符合妨害公务罪的犯罪构成

被告人从冲撞民警到后续的驾车逃匿行为是一整个连续的过程,亦?#35789;导实?#33268;相对?#29616;?#30340;危害后果发生,不能人为地将其割裂成冲卡时是妨害公务,逃跑的后续行为是以危险方法危害公共安全。在此过程中,或许给执法人员造成了一定的心理恐慌,客观上也造成了一名执法人员右手指甲受伤的轻微伤后果,但这样的后果与以危险方法危害公共安全罪所要求的后果相比,明显较轻。如果某种行为符合其他犯罪的犯罪构成,以其他犯罪论处符合罪责刑相适应原则,应尽量认定为其他犯罪,不宜认定为本罪(以危险方法危害公共安全罪)。例如,盗窃公路井盖的行为,?#35789;?#21361;害公共安全,也宜认定为破坏交通设施罪。在公共场所故意驾车撞人,宜认定为故意杀人罪、故意伤害罪。

综上,我们认为从主客观相一致的角?#32469;?#21028;,被告人带着逃避酒驾查处的一个目的实施驾车冲卡逃匿的行为,应以妨害公务罪一罪论处。我们在审理类似案件时,务必综合考虑案件的起因、行为人的主观故意、犯罪情节、案发时?#30446;?#35266;环?#22330;?#21361;害后果等多方因素,合理把握定罪与量刑,以做到罪责刑相适应,不枉不纵,罚当其罪。

 

编辑:王俊

 

 

 


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